The mode of nutrition in which organisms synthesize their own food using inorganic materials such as carbon dioxide, water, and minerals is called autotrophic nutrition Organisms that exhibit this kind of nutrition are autotrophs (auto: self; trophy: nutrition). Green plants are also called producers as they produce food for all living organisms.
Think about what Earth looks like from outer space. You probably see the blue of the oceans and the green land of the continents. Why does the land look green? Because of plants! But what makes plants green? That's a little more complicated. Plants look green because of a natural pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs the red, blue, and other wavelengths of light, and it reflects the green back to your eyes, so that is what you see.
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS
The chloroplast contains chlorophyll but Does chlorophyll have any other uses in plants, besides making them appear green? Definitely! Chlorophyll and light energy are both important for plants in another way, too. Plants trap light energy from the sun. They combine this light energy with carbon dioxide from the air as well as water. They turn these into sugars that act as food for the plant. This whole process is called photosynthesis. Chlorophyll traps the light from the sun to be used for photosynthesis, so without chlorophyll, plants could not survive!
BELOW IS THE MICROSCOPIC VIDEOS OF THE PLANT CELL WHICH CONTAINS CHLOROPLAST
CHLOROPLAST IN WATERWEED PLANTS
CHLOROPLAST IN CERATODON PURPUREUS PLANT
• Stomata, also called Stoma, plural Stomata, or Stomas, any of the microscopic openings or pores in the epidermis of leaves and young stems. Stomates are generally more numerous on the underside of leaves. They provide for the exchange of gases between the outside air and the branched system of interconnecting air canals within the leaf.
• A stomate opens and closes in response to the internal pressure of two sausage-shaped guard cells that surround it. The inner wall of a guard cell is thicker than the outer wall. When the guard cell is filled with water and it becomes turgid, the outer wall balloons outward, drawing the inner wall with it and causing the stomate to enlarge.
• Guard cells work to control excessive water loss, closing on hot, dry, or windy days and opening when conditions are more favourable for gas exchange. At dawn a sudden increase in stomatal opening, reaching maximum near noon, is followed by a decline because of water loss. Recovery and reopening are then followed by another decline as darkness approaches.
• The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air is another regulator of stomatal opening in many plants. When carbon dioxide levels fall below normal (about 0.03 percent), the guard cells become turgid and the stomata enlarge.
CLOSING OF STOMATA
LEAF SECTION - SHOWING THE STOMATA
Below are close-up diagrams from different perspective to illustrate the cross section of the leaf - You would be able to see the veins of the leaf, the upper layer of the leafs and the lower layer of leafs and also showing the stomata opening.
• Root is that part of a vascular plant normally underground. Its primary functions are anchorage of the plant, absorption of water, dissolved minerals and conduction of these to the stem.
Primary or Main Functions of Roots:
Anchorage: Roots take part in fixation of the plant and supporting the aerial shoot system.
Absorption of Water: Roots absorb water from soil.
Absorption of Minerals: Roots absorb mineral salts from soil.
Prevention of Soil Erosion: Roots hold the soil particles firmly to prevent soil erosion.
Transport: They take part in transport of absorbed water and minerals to shoot system. Similarly, root has channels for the flow of organic food from aerial parts.
Secondary or Accessory Functions of Roots:
Storage: It occurs in fleshy roots.
Climbing: Roots help some of the weak stemmed plants to cling and hence climb up a support, e.g., Ivy, Tecoma, Betel, and Money Plant.
Perennation: In many biennial and perennial plants e.g., Trichosanthes.
Nitrogen Fixation: Nodulated roots of Pea, Bean, Gram, Methi, etc.
Aeration: Prop roots, knee roots and pneumatophores of Mangrove plants, e.g., Rhizophora, Heritiera, Sonneratia.
Floating: By storing air (e.g., Jussiaea = Ludwigia) some of the roots function as floats.
Balancing: Free floating plants usually possess a cluster of adventitious roots from their nodes and bases to help in balancing the plants over the water surface, e.g., Lemna, Pistia, Eichhornia.