TEXTURES OF THE FABRICS

CARPET

BEDSHEET

RUG

CARPET

WOOL FABRIC

WOOL FABRIC

CUSHION COVER

CURTAIN

COUCH

SUEDE FABRIC

POLYESTER

POLYESTER - 2

POLYESTER - 3

POLYESTER - 4

MUSLIN

COTTON

LINEN

LINEN - 2

DENIM

DENIM - 2

DENIM - 3

COTTON

COTTON

COTTON

COTTON

COTTON

CASHMERE WOOL

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEXTURES

NATURAL FIBRES

Natural fibres are greatly elongated substances produced by plants and animals that can be spun into filaments, thread or rope. Woven, knitted, matted or bonded, they form fabrics that are essential to society. Most textile fibres are slender, flexible, and relatively strong. They are elastic in that they stretch when put under tension and then partially or completely return to their original length when the tension is removed.

PLANTS

ANIMALS

COTTON

JUTE​

WOOL

SILK

SYNTHETIC FIBRES

For thousands of years natural fibres were the only ones available for making fabrics. In the last hundred years or so, fibres are also made from chemical substances, which are not obtained from plant or animal sources. These are called synthetic fibres. Some examples of synthetic fibres are polyester, nylon and acrylic.

POLYSTER

NYLON

ACRYLIC

COTTON

Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. The fibres can be made into a wide variety of fabrics ranging from lightweight voiles and laces to heavy sailcloths and thick-piled velveteens, suitable for a great variety of wearing apparel, home furnishings, and industrial uses. Cotton fabrics can be extremely durable and resistant to abrasion. Cotton accepts many dyes, is usually washable, and can be ironed at relatively high temperatures.

NOW LET'S TAKE A LOOK AT
HOW THE PROCESS OF MAKING OF COTTON FABRIC IS TAKING PLACE

STAGE 1

  • Cotton Farming

STAGE 2

  • Harvesting

STAGE 3

  • Collection of harvest into truck within fields (to be taken to the factories)

STAGE 4 (a)

  • Ginning process

STAGE 4 (b)

  • Result after ginning – Cotton fiber and seeds gets seperated from each other

STAGE 5

  • Compressing cotton into bales

STAGE 6

  • Spinning

STAGE 7

  • Weaving

THINGS WE MAKE FROM COTTON

Cotton seed is fed to cattle and crushed to make oil. This cottonseed oil is used for cooking and in products like soap, margarine, emulsifiers, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and plastics. Linters are the very short fibres that remain on the cottonseed after ginning. But the cotton fabric we make from the cotton after all the process, used in textile like shirt or the pants that you might be wearing right now.

COTTON SHIRT

COTTON SHIRT AND PANT

JUTE

Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC. For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal, precisely in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire, jute was also used in the military.

NOW LET'S TAKE A LOOK AT
HOW THE PROCESS OF MAKING OF JUTE FABRIC IS TAKING PLACE

STAGE 1

  • Harvesting of raw jute

STAGE 2

  •  Jute fibres being extracted from the jute sticks

STAGE 3

  • Drying the jute fibres

STAGE 4

  • Weaving

THINGS WE MAKE FROM JUTE

Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. The fibers are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs,The vesatility of Jute - combined with a low cost base - makes it ideally suited to a variety of uses.

JUTE BAG

JUTE ROPE

ANIMALS FIBRES

• The use of natural fibres for textile materials began before recorded history. The oldest indication of fibre use is probably the discovery of flax and wool fabrics at excavation sites of the Swiss lake dwellers (7th and 6th centuries BCE). Several vegetable fibres were also used by prehistoric peoples. Hemp, presumably the oldest cultivated fibre plant, originated in Southeast Asia, then spread to China, where reports of cultivation date to 4500 BCE.

• The manufacture of silk and silk products originated in the highly developed Chinese culture; the invention and development of sericulture (cultivation of silkworms for raw-silk production) and of methods to spin silk date from 2640 BCE.

• Natural fibres can be classified according to their origin. The vegetable, or cellulose-base, class includes such important fibres as cotton, flax, and jute. The animal, or protein-base, fibres include wool, mohair, and silk.

WOOL

SILK

WOOL

Wool, animal fibre forming the protective covering, or fleece, of sheep or of other hairy mammals, such as goats and camels. Prehistoric man, clothing himself with sheepskins, eventually learned to make yarn and fabric from their fibre covering. Selective sheep breeding eliminated most of the long, coarse hairs forming a protective outer coat, leaving the insulating fleecy undercoat of soft, fine fibre.

STAGES OF WOOL FROM START TO FINISH

STAGE 1

  •  Raising Sheep

STAGE 2

  •  Shearing

STAGE 3

  • Washing

STAGE 4

  •  Grading

STAGE 5

  •  Spinning by hand

STAGE 6

  • Weaving

THINGS WE MAKE FROM WOOL

Wool is active, reacting to changes in ones body temperature to keep you warm when you’re cold but releasing heat and moisture when you’re hot.It can insulate the home providing and retaining warmth; reducing energy costs.The natural elasticity of the fibres means it stretches with the wearer, but then returns to its natural shape, so there is less chance of garments sagging or losing their shape.

WINTER HAT

SWEATER

SILK

• Silk, animal fibre produced by certain insects and arachnids as building material for cocoons and webs, some of which can be used to make fine fabrics. In commercial use, silk is almost entirely limited to filaments from the cocoons of domesticated silkworms

• The origin of silk production and weaving is ancient and clouded in legend. The industry undoubtedly began in China, where, according to native record, it existed from sometime before the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE. At that time it was discovered that the roughly 1 km (1,000 yards) of thread that constitutes the cocoon of the silkworm could be reeled off, spun, and woven, and sericulture early became an important feature of the Chinese rural economy. A Chinese legend says that it was the wife of the mythological Yellow Emperor, Huangdi, who taught the Chinese people the art; throughout history the empress was ceremonially associated with sericulture.

STAGES OF SILK FROM START TO FINISH

STAGE 1

  • Its can take from 7-20 days for the hatchling of the eggs

STAGE 2

  • The final instar of the larval stage is 2-3/4 inches long

STAGE 3

  • Cocoon Formation

STAGE 4

  • Birth of Moth

STAGE 5

  • Gathering Of Cocoon

STAGE 6

  • Soaking

STAGE 7

  • Thread extraction

STAGE 8

  • Dyeing

STAGE 9

  •  Spining

STAGE 10

  • Weaving

SILK PRODUCER - SILKWORM AND SILK MOTH

MOTH

MOTH

SILKWORM - 360° VIEW

THINGS WE MAKE FROM SILK

Silk is suitable for every occasion, it is used to sew garments for everyday wear and clothes for the most significant events. Some silk fabrics keep the shape well and others drape perfectly, laying down soft folds. We can create a great variety of garments, differing in cut, style, occasion, and color.

SILK TIE

SILK COAT

NYLON

GENERAL OVERVIEW

• Nylons, or polyamides (PA), are high-performance semi-crystalline thermoplastics with attractive physical and mechanical properties that provide a wide range of end-use performances important in many industrial applications.

• While nylon takes many forms, it made its name as a textile fiber and revolutionized the textile industry. According to Fortune magazine in 1940, nylon was the fifth basic textile development in 4,000 years; the others were mercerized cotton, mechanical mass production, synthetic dyes, and rayon. In turn, nylon led to a host of other fibers and plastics that are integral to an advanced industrial society.

Manufacturing

About 8 billion pounds of nylon are produced each year in the U.S. Nylon is an artificial fiber. It is durable, strong and resists abrasion. In 1939, the DuPont company first manufactured NYLON – it was the first synthetic fiber made in the United States. It was used in nylon stockings during wartime, but even after the war became preferred over silk, and quickly replaced silk in most hosiery. Nylon is made of polymers known as polyamides which contain carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Solid chips of these polyamides are melted and forced through a heated spinneret. The spinneret has from one to hundreds of holes. Their size and shape change the characteristics of the resulting fiber. The fiber solidifies as it cools, and can then be spun or woven.

Properties and Uses OF Nylon

Nylon does not absorb water – this is great for some uses, but also means that nylon fabric and movement combine to create static electricity. Nylon has some of the look and feel of silk. It is used in sheer hosiery, sails, parachutes, blouses, gowns and veils, swimsuits, lingerie, and even car tires. Nylon has also replaced wool as the fiber most used in carpets. A process called air-texturing adds bulk to the nylon to make it useful as a floor covering.

Characteristics of Polyester Fibers and Products

  • Resists abrasion (but can “pill”)
  • Very resilient (springs back into shape)
  • Resist wrinkling
  • Very high heat can “melt” the fabric
  • The right amount of heat can be used to permanently “heat set” a crease or pleat
  • Easy to wash and wear
  • Does not absorb water (can be uncomfortable when worn next to the skin in warm weather unless loosely woven)
  • Dries quickly
  • Attracts static electricity which also attracts dirt and lint
  • Although they do NOT absorb water, they DO absorb oil and grease. This means synthetics
  • resist soiling, but once an oil-based stain soaks in, it can be difficult to clean.
  • Strong fiber 
  • Often blended with cotton or even wool to add crease resistance
  • NYLON does not absorb water, but it can be produced in such a way (as in polypropylene and microfibers) as to “wick” water away from the skin

EXAMPLES OF SOME OF THE NYLON USES

NYLON JACKET

NYLON GLOVES

SEATBELT OF CAR SEAT

SLEEPING BAG

BACKPACK

TENT

NYLON MOUNTAIN CLIMBING ROPE

POLYESTER

GENERAL OVERVIEW

The fabrics made from polyester fiber have good elasticity, wrinkle resistance, shape retention, excellent wash-and-wear performance and durability, and so on so that it is widely used in all kinds of apparel fabrics. However, because polyester fiber is poor in moisture absorption, its clothing makes the wearer feel hot and sticky, produces static electricity easily which results in clothing absorbing dust and clinging to the body, and has poor comfort.

Manufacturing

• Polyester is the most commonly used synthetic fiber. DuPont introduced its Dacron brand of polyester in 1951, but the material itself was patented earlier in 1941.

• It’s made by reacting dicarboxylic acid with a dihydric alcohol. This base material can be used to make many things, from soda bottles to boats, as well as clothing fibers. Like nylon, polyester is melt-spun – this process allows the fibers to be made in different shapes and sizes for specific applications. Chemists can now alter the size and shape of polyester fibers to look and feel more like natural fibers. Ultra-thin microfibers can give polyester a smoother, softer feel than the polyester of twenty years ago.

Properties and Uses

It can be used for fashionable dresses, but it is most admired for its ability to resist wrinkling and for its easy wash-ability. Its toughness makes it a frequent choice for children’s wear. Polyester is often blended with other fibers like cotton to get the best of both worlds.

Characteristics of Polyester Fibers and Products

  • Resists abrasion (but can “pill”)
  • Very resilient (springs back into shape)
  • Resist wrinkling
  • Very high heat can “melt” the fabric
  • The right amount of heat can be used to permanently “heat set” a crease or pleat
  • Easy to wash and wear
  • Does not absorb water (can be uncomfortable when worn next to the skin in warm weather unless loosely woven)
  • Dries quickly
  • Attracts static electricity which also attracts dirt and lint
  • Although they do NOT absorb water, they DO absorb oil and grease. This means synthetics
  • resist soiling, but once an oil-based stain soaks in, it can be difficult to clean.
  • Strong fiber (but nylon is stronger)
  • Often blended with cotton or even wool to add crease resistance
  • Polyester does not absorb water, but it can be produced in such a way (as in polypropylene and microfibers) as to “wick” water away from the skin

EXAMPLES OF SOME OF THE POLYESTER USES

BLANKETS

UPHOLSTERY

WINDOW SHADES

DOOR CURTAINS

STRENGTH GRAPH OF SYNTHETIC AND NATURAL FIBRE

ACRYLIC

GENERAL OVERVIEW

Acrylic fabric is made with plastic threads. The plastic threads are made of a manmade polymer fiber created from fossil fuels through a chemical process. Acrylic fabric is made in a way similar to the production of polyamide fabric (or nylon fabric) and polyester fabric.

Manufacturing

• Acrylic can be thought of as artificial wool. It is made from the unlikely combination of coal, air, water, oil, and limestone. DuPont first made acrylic fibers in 1944 and began commercial production in 1950. It is spun by either dry spinning or wet spinning.

• In dry spinning, the dissolved polymers are extruded into warm air. The fibers solidify by evaporation. In wet spinning, the polymer is dissolved and extruded into a bath and then dried.

Properties and Uses

• In some ways, acrylic imitates wool. It has wool’s warmth and softness but does not absorb water. Instead, acrylic wicks moisture to the surface where it evaporates.

• Acrylic is used in knitted apparels such as fleece, socks, sportswear, and sweaters. It is also used to create fake fur, craft yarns, upholstery fabric, carpet, luggage, awnings, and vehicle covers.

Characteristics of Polyester Fibers and Products

  • Resists abrasion (but can “pill”)
  • Very resilient (springs back into shape)
  • Resist wrinkling
  • Very high heat can “melt” the fabric
  • The right amount of heat can be used to permanently “heat set” a crease or pleat
  • Easy to wash and wear
  • Does not absorb water (can be uncomfortable when worn next to the skin in warm weather unless loosely woven)
  • Dries quickly
  • Attracts static electricity which also attracts dirt and lint
  • Although they do NOT absorb water, they DO absorb oil and grease. This means synthetics
  • resist soiling, but once an oil-based stain soaks in, it can be difficult to clean.
  • Lightweight and fairly strong
  • Acrylic can bulk to look like wool
  • Drapes well and accepts dye easily

EXAMPLES OF SOME OF THE ACRYLIC USES

FACE MASK

SWEATER

GLOVES

SOCKS

SWEATER

WINTER HAT

STRENGTH GRAPH OF SYNTHETIC AND NATURAL FIBRE